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HISTORY: The first inhabitants of Australia were the Aborigines who migrated there about 40,000 years ago during an ice age when Australia was connected to Asia by land bridge. Europeans began to explore Australia in the 1600s. In 1770, Captain Cook arrived in Botany Bay. He claimed all of Australia for Britain and named it New South Wales. In 1779, Joseph Banks (a naturalist on Cook's voyage) suggested that Britain solve its overcrowding problems in prisons by transporting